Los desafíos medioambientales en el espacio ultraterrestre en el marco de la segunda era espacial

Miguel Yagües Palazón

Resumen


A lo largo del siglo XXI se ha producido un proceso paralelo altamente contradictorio. Por un lado, han crecido gradualmente las actividades espaciales a consecuencia de la entrada de nuevos actores espaciales deseosos de beneficiarse de los recursos orbitales. Y por otro lado, ha aumentado el número de Estados que han desarrollado armamento capaz de atacar los satélites en el marco de una carrera armamentista auspiciada por las tensiones regionales. Una de esas armas ha sido el doble uso de los interceptores cinéticos exo-atmosféricos incorporados en los sistemas de defensa antimisiles (BMD). La potencial amenaza que se cierne sobre la seguridad espacial se halla en que los BMD pueden acometer intercepciones sobre los misiles balísticos pero también sobre los satélites. Además de las importantes connotaciones estratégicas que representan los ataques sobre los satélites, el medio ambiente espacial puede quedar severamente deteriorado a causa de su intrínseca fragilidad y por tanto, afectar al desarrollo económico, civil y militar del resto de los actores espaciales.

 

Throughout the century there has been a parallel process highly contradictory. On the one hand, space activities have gradually grown as a result of the advent of new space actors eager to benefit from orbital resources. On the other hand, there has been an increase in the number of States that have developed weapons capable of attacking satellites in the framework of an arms race under the regional tensions. One of these weapons has been the dual use of Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicles, an essential component of missile defense systems (BMD). The potential threat to space security lies in the fact that BMDs can carry out interceptions on ballistic missiles but also on satellites. In addition to the important strategic connotations of satellite attacks, the space environment may be severely impaired because of its intrinsic fragility and thus affect the economic, civil and military development of other space actors.Se


Palabras clave


Seguridad espacial; medio ambiente espacial; armas ASAT; tecnología de doble uso; sistemas de defensa antimisiles, interceptores exo-atmosféricos; carrera espacial.

Texto completo:

PDF PDF (English)

Referencias


ALBERTY, M., «NASA Deploys Satellite Designed to Re-enter Atmosphere Using Revamped Drag Device», NASA, 4 de marzo de 2015.

ALBY, F., «The Space Debris Environment and its Impacts», en RATHGEBER, W.; SCHROGL, K. & WILLIAMSON, R. A. (eds.), The Fair and Responsible Use of Space: An International Perspective, Viena: Springer, 2010, pp. 60-72.

ALBY, F., «The Issue of Space Debris», en SCHROGL, K-U.; HAYS, P. L.; ROBINSON, J.; & GIANNOPAPA, D. M. CH. (eds.), Handbook of Space Security. Policies, Applications and Programs, New York: Springer, 2015, pp. 679-698.

AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY (APS), Report of the American Physical Society Study Group on Boost-Phase Intercept Systems for National Missile Defense: Scientific and Technical Issues, 2004.

BARUAH, D., «Toward Strategic Economic Cooperation Between India and Japan», Carnegie India, 1 de diciembre de 2016.

BASELEY-WALKER, B. & WEEDEN, B., «Verification in space: theories, realities and possibilities», en VIGNARD, K. (ed.), Arms Control Verification, Genva: United Nations, 2010, pp. 39-50.

BEN-DAVID, A., «Israel: Arrow Missile Defense Systems Faltered In 2014 Tests», Aviation Week Network, 5 de mayo de 2015.

BOWEN, B. E., «Cascading Crises: Orbital Debris and the Widening of Space Security», Astropolitics: The International Journal of Space Politics & Policy, 2014, vol. 12:1, p. 46-68.

BOWLBY, C., «Could a war in space really happen?», BBC News, 19 de diciembre de 2015.

BRANIGAN, T., «China 'successfully tests missile interceptor'», The Guardian, 12 de enero de 2010.

BRODKIN, J., «SpaceX plans worldwide satellite Internet with low latency, gigabit speed», Ars Technica, 17 de noviembre de 2016.

BUMP, P., «Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin agree: Let’s revive the nuclear arms race», Washington Post, 22 de diciembre de 2016.

BUTT, Y., «Can space weapons protect U.S. satellites?», Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 22 de julio de 2008.

CHOI, C. Q., «Space Station Could Get Laser Cannon to Destroy Orbital Debris», Space.com, 30 de abril de 2015.

DAVID, L., «Russian Satellite Hit by Debris from Chinese Anti-Satellite Test», Space.com, 8 de marzo de 2013.

DAVID, L., «China's Anti-Satellite Test: Worrisome Debris Cloud Circles Earth», Space.com, 2 de febrero de 2007.

DAVID, L., «E-Weapons: Directed Energy Warfare In The 21st Century», Space.com, 11 de enero de 2006.

DE SELDING, P. B., «Pentagon Official: U.S. Is Not Developing Space Weapons», Space.com, 20 de febrero de 2009.

DEAMER, K., «Cold War-Era Satellites Spy on Himalayan Glaciers», Space.com, 15 de diciembre de 2016.

DOMÍNGUEZ, N., «Elon Musk desvela su plan para crear una civilización en Marte», El País, 28 de septiembre de 2016.

EL PAÍS, «La destrucción de Alepo, en un mapa de la ONU», El País, 29 de diciembre de 2016.

EL PAÍS, «Chatarrería espacial», El País, 7 de mayo de 2015.

ESHEL, T., «Israel’s Arrow-3 Completes Successful Exoatmospheric Flight Test», Defense Update, 25 de febrero de 2013.

EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY. The Space Debris Story 2013.

EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY. Galileo Begins serving the Globe, 15 de diciembre de 2016.

FARGO, M., «Assessing Boost-Phase Missile Defense», CSIS, Center for Strategic and International Studies, 3 de octubre de 2012.

FLURY, W.; MASSART, A.; SCHILDKNECHT, T.; HUGENTOBLER, U.; KUUSELA, J. & SUDNIK, Z., «Searching for Small Debris in the Geostationary Ring – Discoveries with the Zeiss 1-metre Telescope», ESA, Bulletin 104, 2000, November.

FORDEN, G., «After China's Test: Time For a Limited Ban on Anti-Satellite Weapons» Arms Control Association, 2 de abril de 2007.

FULGHUM, D., «Higher-Altitude Arrow Design To Show Its Potential», Aviation Week Network, 3 de diciembre de 2012.

GAPOLASWAMY, B. & KAMPANI, G., «Piggybacking Anti-Satellite Technologies on Ballistic Missile Defense: India’s Hedge and Demonstrate Approach», Carnegie. Endowment for International Peace, 19 de abril de 2011.

GHOSHAL, D., «India Conducts Successful Missile Interceptor Test», The Diplomat, 8 de mayo 2014.

GOLDMAN, R., «Reading Fake News, Pakistani Minister Directs Nuclear Threat at Israel», The New York Times, 24 de diciembre de 2016.

GREGO, L., «A Victory for Common Sense on Missile Defense», Union of Concerned Scientists, 20 de diciembre de 2013.

GREGO, L., «The Anti-Satellite Capability of the Phased Adaptive Approach Missile Defense System», Federation of American Scientists, 2011, Winter.

GRUSS, M., «U.S. State Department: China Tested Anti-satellite Weapon», SpaceNews, 28 de julio de 2014.

GUBRUD, Mark A., «Chinese and US Kinetic Energy Space Weapons and Arms Control», Asian Perspective, 2011, vol. 35, p. 617–641.

IAA, International Academy of Astronautics, Position Paper on Space Debris Mitigation. Implementing Zero Debris Creation Zones, 2005.

IADC, Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee, IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, 2007.

IADC, Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee, Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, 2010.

INDIA STRATEGIC, «Indian Scientists Successfully Intercept Ballistic Missile», India Strategic, marzo 2009.

ITAR-TASS, «Deputy Defence Minister: Russia’s new S-500 system to destroy any target at any altitude», TASS, 26 de marzo de 2014.

JARAMILLO, C., Space Security Index 2013, Ontario: Space Security.org, Tenth edition, 2013.

JOHNSON-FREESE, J., Space Warfare in the 21st Century. Arming the heavens, New York: Routledge, 2017.

JOHNSON, N. L.; STANSBERY, E.; LIOU, J-C.; HORSTMAN, M.; STOKELY, C. & WHITLOCK, D., «The Characteristics and Consequences of the Break-up of the Fengyun-1C spacecraft», Acta Astronautica, 2008, vol. 63:1-4, pp. 128-135.

JONES, S., «Satellite wars», Financial Times, 20 de noviembre de 2015.

KECK, Z., «China Secretly Tested an Anti-Satellite Missile», The Diplomat, 19 de marzo de 2014.

KREPON, M., Cooperative Threat Reduction, Missile Defense, and the Nuclear Future, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

LAPPIN, Y., «Arrow 3 missile defense system successfully intercepts target in space in critical test», The Jerusalem Post, 10 de diciembre de 2015.

LELE, A., «Should India Conduct an ASAT Test Now?» en LELE, A. (ed.), Decoding the International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities, New Delhi: Institute for Defence Studies & Analyses, 2012, pp. 155-157.

LIEMER, R. & CHYBA, C. F., «A Verifiable Limited Test Ban for Anti-satellite Weapons», The Washington Quarterly, 2010, vol. 33:3, pp. 149-163.

LIOU, J-C. & JOHNSON, N. L., «A Sensitivity Study of the Effectiveness of Active Debris Removal in LEO», Acta Astronautica, 2009, vol. 64:2-3, pp. 236-243.

LISTNER, M., «India’s ABM test: a validated ASAT capability or a paper tiger?», The Space Review, 28 de marzo de 2011.

MASTERS, J., «Ballistic Missile Defense», Council on Foreign Relations, 15 de agosto de 2014.

MCCURRY, J., «North Korea defence chief reportedly executed with anti-aircraft gun», The Guardian, 13 de mayo de 2015.

MISSILE DEFENSE AGENCY. Ballistic Missile Defense Intercept Flight Test Record, 6 de noviembre de 2014.

MISSILE DEFENSE AGENCY. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense.

MISSILE THREAT. S-500 Prometheus. 26 de abril de 2013.

MISSILE THREAT. General Principles of Missile Defense.

MOLTZ, J. C., «Breaking the Deadlock on Space Arms Control», Arms Control Association, 1 de abril de 2002.

MOLTZ, J. C., «Coalitions in Space: Where Networks are Power», en Harrison, R. (ed.), Space and Defense, Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies, 2011, vol. 5:1, Summer, pp. 5-22.

MOLTZ, J. C., «It’s On: Asia’s New Space Race», The Daily Beast, 17 de enero de 2015.

MOLTZ, J. C., Asia's Space Race: National Motivations, Regional Rivalries, and International Risks, New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.

MOLTZ, J. C., The Politics of Space Security. Strategic Restraint and the Pursuit of National Interests, California: Standford University Press, Second Edition, 2011.

MONFORT, C. A., «ASATs: Star Wars on the cheap», Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1989, April, vol. 45:3, pp. 10-13.

NASA ORBITAL DEBRIS PROGRAM OFFICE. Orbital Debris Frequently Asked Questions.

NASA, «Fengyun-1C Debris Cloud Remains Hazardous», Orbital Debris. Quaterly News, 2014, vol. 18:1, January, pp. 2-3.

NASA, History of On-Orbit Satellite Fragmentations, Orbital Debris Program Office, 2008.

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, Making Sense of Ballistic Missile Defense: An Assessment of Concepts and Systems for U.S. Boost-Phase Missile Defense in Comparison to Other Alternatives, Washington, D. C.: The National Academies Press, 2012.

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, Orbital Debris. A Technical Assessment, Washington, D. C.: The National Academies Press, 1995.

PELTON, J. N., Space Debris and Other Threats from Outer Space, New York: Srpinger, 2013.

PINCUS, W., «The New Art of War», Washington Post, 3 de marzo de 2008.

PODVIG, P., «Dates of Nudol ASAT tests», Russian strategic nuclear forces, 10 de mayo de 2016.

PORTREE, D. S. F. & LOFTUS, JR. J. P., Orbital Debris: A Chronology, NASA.

POST (Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology), Space Debris, UK Parliament, 2010, No. 355, March.

PRADHAN, A., «Country will test missile shield next week: DRDO», The Times of India, 20 de abril 2014.

PRIESTER, W., ROEMER, M., & VOLLAND, H., «The Physical Behavior of the Upper Atmosphere deduced from Satellite Drag Data», Space Science Reviews, 1967, vol. 6:6, pp. 708-780.

PRIMACK, J., «Debris and Future Space Activities», en MOTLZ, J. C. (ed.), Future Security in Space: Commercial, Military, and Arms Control Trade-Offs, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Occasional Paper, 2002, pp. 1-7.

PYADUSHKIN, M., «Russian Long-Range Air DefenseEffortsBlossom», AviationWeek.com, 7 de marzo de 2011.

ROBIN, S., «Russia's S-500: The Ultimate Weapon against American Missiles or Paper Tiger?», The National Interest, 4 de noviembre de 2016.

RT, «Russia to deploy fifth-gen fighters, S-500 missiles in 2016», RT, 11 de agosto de 2014.

SEGOVIA, C., «Hacienda descubre con el satélite y drones 1,69 millones de inmuebles que no habían tributado», El Mundo, 26 de julio de 2016.

SHAHAL, A., «U.S. to reassess missile defense interceptor if next test mails», Reuters, 11 de junio de 2014.

SHALAL-ESA, A., «U.S. sees China launch as test of anti-satellite muscle: source», Reuters, 15 de mayo de 2013.

SHI, T., «China Says Third Missile-Defense Test in Four Years Successful», Bloomberg, 24 de julio de 2014.

STENGER, R., «Scientist: Space weapons pose debris threat», CNN, 3 de mayo de 2002.

SU, J., «The environmental dimension of space arms control», Space Policy, 2013, vol. 29:1, pp. 58-66.

SWARTS, P., «Missile defense tracking systems need to move to orbit, leaders say», SpaceNews, 15 de diciembre de 2016.

TEJAS, A., «Indian Government Plans Nuclear Missile Defense Shield For Delhi», International Business Times, 4 de abril de 2015.

THE CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES. China’s New Spratly Island Defenses, 13 de diciembre de 2016.

THE NEW YORK TIMES, «Preventing a Space War», The New York Times, 29 de junio de 2015.

THE TELEGRAPH, «Demarche Following China's January 2010 Intercept Flight-Test», The Telegraph, 2 de febrero de 2011.

Tratado sobre los principios que deben regir las actividades de los Estados en la exploración y utilización del espacio ultraterrestre, incluso la Luna y otros cuerpos celestes. Firmado en Moscú, Washington y Londres el 27 de enero de 1967, entrado en vigor, el 10 de octubre de 1967. 18 U.S.T. 2410, T.I.A.S. No. 6347, 610 U.N.T.S. 2052012, Naciones Unidas: Nueva York.

U. S. SENATE. Statement by J. Michael Gilmore before the Senate Armed Services Committee Strategic Forces Subcommittee, 2 de abril de 2014.

U.S. ARMY TRAINING AND DOCTRINE COMMAND, Army Space Reference Text, capítulo 5, Space Division. 2000.

WEEDEN, B., «Overview of the legal and policy challenges of orbital debris removal», Space Policy, 2011, vol. 27:1, pp. 38-43.

WEEDEN, B., «Through a glass, darkly: Chinese, American, and Russian anti- satellite testing in space», The Space Review, 17 de marzo de 2014.

WEINER, S., «Systems and Technology», en CARTER, A. B. & SCHWART, D. N. (eds.), Ballistic Missile Defense, Washington, D. C.: The Brookings Institution, 1984, pp. 49-97.

WHITE HOUSE. National Security Strategy of the United States of America, 2005, p. 12.

WILLIAMS, D., «Israel says it successfully tests new missile defense», Reuters, 25 de febrero de 2013.

WILLIAMS, M., «Safeguarding Outer Space: on the road to debris mitigation», en United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (ed.), Security in Space: the Next Generation, Geneva: United Nations, 2008, pp. 81-103.

WRIGHT, D., «China’s January 2013 Missile Defense Test», Union of Concerned Scientists, 26 de marzo de 2015.

WRIGHT, D., «How High Did China’s May 2013 Launch Go?», Union of Concerned Scientists, 13 de marzo de 2014.

WRIGHT, D., «Orbital Debris Produced by Kinetic-Energy Anti-Satellite Weapons», en UNITED NATIONS INSTITUTE FOR DISARMAMENT RESEARCH (ed.), Celebrating the Space Age. 50 Years of Space Technology, 40 Years of the Outer Space Treaty, Ginebra: United Nations, 2007, pp. 155-164.

YANOFSKY, D. & FERNHOLZ, T,. Quartz. This is every active satellite orbiting earth.

ZENKO, M., «The danger of space debris», CNN World, 24 de septiembre de 2011.

ZHANYUAN, D., «Some considerations about the verification issue of preventing ouer space weaponization», en UNIDIR (ed)., Safeguarding Space Security: Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space, Geneva: United Nations, 2006, pp. 83-86.

Роскосмос: Тгк «Прогресс М-27м» прекратил существование (Roskosmos: Tgk «Progress M-27m» prekratil sushhestvovanie), 8 de mayo de 2015.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.