Marco y análisis del Estado Islámico

  • Eisa Younes Alblooshi PHD Researcher at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Palabras clave: Terrorismo, Estado Islámico, contraterrorismo

Resumen

Para llevar a cabo la formulación y puesta en práctica de estrategias eficaces en la lucha contra el terrorismo es necesario comprender bien la dinámica y los elementos organizativos interrelacionados de los grupos a los que nos enfrentamos, con el fin de tener una equilibrada visión de conjunto de sus puntos fuertes y de las áreas más débiles a las que podemos dirigir nuestra atención para ganar eficiencia en las operaciones. Centrándonos en el Estado Islámico (EI) y en los yihadistas de tipo “lobo solitario”, se puede hacer frente mejor a las amenazas que plantean a la sociedad española con un enfoque proactivo, en base también a los imperativos de sus elementos organizativos. Como complemento a los marcos que ya utilizan los organismos antiterroristas, adquiriríamos una perspectiva inestimable observando la dinámica organizativa y de gestión en el seno de estas organizaciones mediante la creación de un modelo de sus distintas dimensiones: vínculos, imperativos, presiones y restricciones que condicionan su estructura y sus operaciones. En este contexto, el modelo presentado para estos dos tipos de terroristas incluye las dimensiones de misión, estructura, financiación, reclutamiento y propagación. El modelo muestra la relación entre las diversas dimensiones, así como las opciones que pueden elegir racionalmente los líderes para una mejor adaptación conforme a las circunstancias internas y externas y a los recursos de que disponen. Los organismos de lucha contra el terrorismo pueden así realizar un análisis de esos cambios, que se reflejan en la organización interna de estos grupos y en sus capacidades, con el fin de identificar y concentrarse en puntos débiles concretos para obtener unos resultados óptimos. Este modelo general puede seguir mejorándose con el fin de incluir otras áreas que ayudarían a elaborar modelos particulares para entidades terroristas concretas que operen en cualquier entorno específico

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Biografía del autor/a

Eisa Younes Alblooshi, PHD Researcher at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

The formulation and implementation of effective counterterrorism strategies require a robust understanding of the dynamics and inter-related organizational elements of the outfits being combated in order to have a balanced all-round view of their strong points and the weak zones that can be focused upon for more efficient operations. Focusing on ISIS and the Jihadist Lone Wolf type, the threats they pose to the Spanish society can be better countered through a proactive approach also underpinned by the imperatives of the organizational elements of these organizations. Supplementing the existing frameworks being used by agencies, an invaluable perspective would be to observe the business and management dynamics within these organizations by creating a blueprint of their different dimensions - their linkages, imperatives, compulsions and the constraints that drive their structure and operations. In this context, the blueprint model introduced by these two types includes the areas of mission, structure, financing, recruitment, and propagation. The model shows the sequencing between the various areas of management with the options chosen by rational leadership in terms of the better fitting according to the internal and external environments and resources at their disposal. An analysis of such progression that results in the internal organization and the capabilities of the entities can then be deployed by the counterterrorism agencies to identify and home in on the specific weak points for optimal results. This Model can be further enhanced to include other areas that would help in creating blueprints for specific terrorist entities operating in any specific environment.

Citas

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US Government Department of Defence. (2012). Muslim Brotherhood (Al-Ikhwan) Encyclopedia: Islamist Extremism and Terrorism, Jihad and Sharia Law, Relationship to Hamas, Egyptian Uprising and the Ouster of Mubarak, Election of Mohamed Morsi . Congress.

Winter, C. (2017). Inside the collapse of Islamic State’s propaganda machine. UK: Wired.

Zirakzadeh, C. E. (2002). From Revolutionary Dreams to Organizational Fragmentation: Disputes over Violence within ETA and Sendero Luminoso. Terrorism and Political Violence , 14 (4), 66-92.

Berger, J. M., & Morgan, J. (2015). The ISIS Twitter Census. The Brookings Project on US Relations with the Islamic World. Brookings.

Berman, E., & Laitin, D. D. (2008). Religion, terrorism and public goods: Testing the club model. Journal of Public Economics .

Center for the Analysis of Terrorism. (2016). ISIS Financing. France: CAT.

Clarke, C. P. (2017). The Terrorist Diaspora. Testimony, House Homeland Security Committee Task Force on Denying Terrorists Entry into the United States .

Europol. (2017). Internet Organised Crime Threat Assessment (IOCTA).

Europol. (2018). Terrorism Situation and Trend Report. Europol.

Fanusie, Y. J., & Entz, A. (2017). Islamic State: Financial Assessment. Center on Sanctions & Illicit Finance. Foundation for Defense of Democracies.

Fanusie, Y. J., & Entz, A. (2017). Islamic State: Financial Assessment. Center on Sanctions & Illicit Finance, Foundation for Defence of Democracies.

Frampton, M., Fisher, A., & Prucha, N. (2017). The New Netwar: countering Extremist Online. Policy Exchange.

Glaser, D. (2016). The Evolution of Terrorism Financing: Disrupting the Islamic State . The Washington Institute for Near East Policy . The Washington Institute for Near East Policy .

Hall, B. (2015). Inside ISIS - The brutal rise of a terrorist army. New York: Center Street.

Heath-Kelly, C. (2013). Counter‐Terrorism and the Counterfactual: Producing the ‘Radicalisation’Discourse and the UK PREVENT Strategy. The British Journal of Politics & International Relations , 15 (3), 394-415.

Heger, L., Jung, D., & Wong, W. (2012). Organizing for Resistance: How Group Structure Impacts the Character of Violence. Terrorism and Political Violence , 24, 743-768.

Michael, M. (2014, November 9). How a Libyan city joined the Islamic State group. AP News .

Mishal, S., & Avraham, S. (2000). The Palestinian Hamas. New York: Columbia University Press.

Nacos, B. L. (2016). Terrorism and Counterterrorism. Routledge.

Nance, M. (2016). Defeating ISIS. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.

Shapiro, J. (2013). The Terrorist's Dilemma. Princeton, New Jersey: Princetown University Press.

Tejerina, B. (2001). Protest Cycle, Political Violence and Social Movements in the Basque Country. Nations and Nationalism , 7 (1), 39-57.

UNDP. (2017). Journey to Extremism in Africa: Drivers, Incentives and the Tipping Point for Recruitment. UNDP.

US Government Department of Defence. (2012). Muslim Brotherhood (Al-Ikhwan) Encyclopedia: Islamist Extremism and Terrorism, Jihad and Sharia Law, Relationship to Hamas, Egyptian Uprising and the Ouster of Mubarak, Election of Mohamed Morsi . Congress.

Winter, C. (2017). Inside the collapse of Islamic State’s propaganda machine. UK: Wired.

Zirakzadeh, C. E. (2002). From Revolutionary Dreams to Organizational Fragmentation: Disputes over Violence within ETA and Sendero Luminoso. Terrorism and Political Violence , 14 (4), 66-92.

Berger, J. M., & Morgan, J. (2015). The ISIS Twitter Census. The Brookings Project on US Relations with the Islamic World. Brookings.

Berman, E., & Laitin, D. D. (2008). Religion, terrorism and public goods: Testing the club model. Journal of Public Economics .

Center for the Analysis of Terrorism. (2016). ISIS Financing. France: CAT.

Clarke, C. P. (2017). The Terrorist Diaspora. Testimony, House Homeland Security Committee Task Force on Denying Terrorists Entry into the United States .

Europol. (2017). Internet Organised Crime Threat Assessment (IOCTA).

Europol. (2018). Terrorism Situation and Trend Report. Europol.

Fanusie, Y. J., & Entz, A. (2017). Islamic State: Financial Assessment. Center on Sanctions & Illicit Finance. Foundation for Defense of Democracies.

Fanusie, Y. J., & Entz, A. (2017). Islamic State: Financial Assessment. Center on Sanctions & Illicit Finance, Foundation for Defence of Democracies.

Frampton, M., Fisher, A., & Prucha, N. (2017). The New Netwar: countering Extremist Online. Policy Exchange.

Glaser, D. (2016). The Evolution of Terrorism Financing: Disrupting the Islamic State . The Washington Institute for Near East Policy . The Washington Institute for Near East Policy .

Hall, B. (2015). Inside ISIS - The brutal rise of a terrorist army. New York: Center Street.

Heath-Kelly, C. (2013). Counter‐Terrorism and the Counterfactual: Producing the ‘Radicalisation’Discourse and the UK PREVENT Strategy. The British Journal of Politics & International Relations , 15 (3), 394-415.

Heger, L., Jung, D., & Wong, W. (2012). Organizing for Resistance: How Group Structure Impacts the Character of Violence. Terrorism and Political Violence , 24, 743-768.

Michael, M. (2014, November 9). How a Libyan city joined the Islamic State group. AP News .

Mishal, S., & Avraham, S. (2000). The Palestinian Hamas. New York: Columbia University Press.

Nacos, B. L. (2016). Terrorism and Counterterrorism. Routledge.

Nance, M. (2016). Defeating ISIS. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.

Shapiro, J. (2013). The Terrorist's Dilemma. Princeton, New Jersey: Princetown University Press.

Tejerina, B. (2001). Protest Cycle, Political Violence and Social Movements in the Basque Country. Nations and Nationalism , 7 (1), 39-57.

UNDP. (2017). Journey to Extremism in Africa: Drivers, Incentives and the Tipping Point for Recruitment. UNDP.

US Government Department of Defence. (2012). Muslim Brotherhood (Al-Ikhwan) Encyclopedia: Islamist Extremism and Terrorism, Jihad and Sharia Law, Relationship to Hamas, Egyptian Uprising and the Ouster of Mubarak, Election of Mohamed Morsi . Congress.

Winter, C. (2017). Inside the collapse of Islamic State’s propaganda machine. UK: Wired.

Zirakzadeh, C. E. (2002). From Revolutionary Dreams to Organizational Fragmentation: Disputes over Violence within ETA and Sendero Luminoso. Terrorism and Political Violence , 14 (4), 66-92.

Berger, J. M., & Morgan, J. (2015). The ISIS Twitter Census. The Brookings Project on US Relations with the Islamic World. Brookings.

Berman, E., & Laitin, D. D. (2008). Religion, terrorism and public goods: Testing the club model. Journal of Public Economics .

Center for the Analysis of Terrorism. (2016). ISIS Financing. France: CAT.

Clarke, C. P. (2017). The Terrorist Diaspora. Testimony, House Homeland Security Committee Task Force on Denying Terrorists Entry into the United States .

Europol. (2017). Internet Organised Crime Threat Assessment (IOCTA).

Europol. (2018). Terrorism Situation and Trend Report. Europol.

Fanusie, Y. J., & Entz, A. (2017). Islamic State: Financial Assessment. Center on Sanctions & Illicit Finance. Foundation for Defense of Democracies.

Fanusie, Y. J., & Entz, A. (2017). Islamic State: Financial Assessment. Center on Sanctions & Illicit Finance, Foundation for Defence of Democracies.

Frampton, M., Fisher, A., & Prucha, N. (2017). The New Netwar: countering Extremist Online. Policy Exchange.

Glaser, D. (2016). The Evolution of Terrorism Financing: Disrupting the Islamic State . The Washington Institute for Near East Policy . The Washington Institute for Near East Policy .

Hall, B. (2015). Inside ISIS - The brutal rise of a terrorist army. New York: Center Street.

Heath-Kelly, C. (2013). Counter‐Terrorism and the Counterfactual: Producing the ‘Radicalisation’Discourse and the UK PREVENT Strategy. The British Journal of Politics & International Relations , 15 (3), 394-415.

Heger, L., Jung, D., & Wong, W. (2012). Organizing for Resistance: How Group Structure Impacts the Character of Violence. Terrorism and Political Violence , 24, 743-768.

Michael, M. (2014, November 9). How a Libyan city joined the Islamic State group. AP News .

Mishal, S., & Avraham, S. (2000). The Palestinian Hamas. New York: Columbia University Press.

Nacos, B. L. (2016). Terrorism and Counterterrorism. Routledge.

Nance, M. (2016). Defeating ISIS. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.

Shapiro, J. (2013). The Terrorist's Dilemma. Princeton, New Jersey: Princetown University Press.

Tejerina, B. (2001). Protest Cycle, Political Violence and Social Movements in the Basque Country. Nations and Nationalism , 7 (1), 39-57.

UNDP. (2017). Journey to Extremism in Africa: Drivers, Incentives and the Tipping Point for Recruitment. UNDP.

US Government Department of Defence. (2012). Muslim Brotherhood (Al-Ikhwan) Encyclopedia: Islamist Extremism and Terrorism, Jihad and Sharia Law, Relationship to Hamas, Egyptian Uprising and the Ouster of Mubarak, Election of Mohamed Morsi . Congress.

Winter, C. (2017). Inside the collapse of Islamic State’s propaganda machine. UK: Wired.

Zirakzadeh, C. E. (2002). From Revolutionary Dreams to Organizational Fragmentation: Disputes over Violence within ETA and Sendero Luminoso. Terrorism and Political Violence , 14 (4), 66-92.

Publicado
2019-06-11
Cómo citar
Younes Alblooshi, E. (2019). Marco y análisis del Estado Islámico. Revista Del Instituto Español De Estudios Estratégicos, (13), 79-110. Recuperado a partir de http://revista.ieee.es/article/view/782
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